Wednesday, August 28, 2019

5 totally awkward reactions to people with a disability


It’d be a real shame to let a little thing like awkwardness get in the way of new friendships.

We know it’s not always easy to chat to someone new and that when it comes to disability, people tend to feel a little apprehensive, usually because they don’t want to say the wrong thing and accidentally offend anyone.


The term ‘disability’ encompasses a wide range of illnesses, conditions, physical impairments and disorders, many of which are not visible to the naked eye.It’s actually highly unlikely that you’ll even be able to recognise a disability in another person. But to help you be cool, calm and collected in any social situation, we’ve made a list of five common and cringe-worthy reactions people have when meeting someone with a disability and simple tips to tone down the awkward.

1. The avoider 
You know those really, unbelievably interesting spots in the clouds? Neither do we. Instead of taking an interest in the lighting fixtures when you see someone with a disability, why not smile as you walk past and say hello? You might feel hesitant about striking up a conversation with someone who has a disability, maybe you think you’ll say something unintentionally offensive, but don’t let awkwardness get in the way of meeting some truly awesome people around campus! It’s important to remember that people living with disabilities are just that: people, like you and I, who happen to be living with a disability.

Act towards them in the way you would want others to approach you. 


2. The investigator 

It’s great that you want to learn and understand your new friend’s disability, but quizzing them about how they get dressed and go to the toilet is uncool. Get to know them as a person first and let them talk to you about their disability if and when they want to. It’s also important to understand what is and is not appropriate to ask. 

And NEVER suggest that a person is faking, exaggerating or inventing a disability... #RUDE 

3. The space invader 

While you might mean well, there’s really no need to get up in the grill of someone with a hearing disability and use your outside voice. Always start by using a normal, friendly tone of voice and make sure you’re facing them when you’re speaking. Adjust your communication style as you go and, if need be, use pen and paper to get your message across. 

There’s no need to be awkward, all it takes is a little time to figure out what will work and you’ll be off and running with a great conversation. 

4. The assumer 

But don’t people with tourettes swear all the time? Many people mistakenly assume that all people with the same disability will present in the same way. Television and the media play a big part in shaping people’s assumptions about disability and it’s easy to stereotype. But it’s important to understand that disabilities present differently in each and every person they affect. Regardless of the type of disability, it’s important not to make assumptions about how a person should behave or what their symptoms should be. 

No two people are the same, even if they happen to have the same disability. 

5. The over-helper 

Wondering how on earth that guy in the wheelchair will ever make it into his car without your help? We really hate to break it to you, but chances are he manages just fine whenever you’re not around. Try not to assume that people with disabilities always need help. There’s nothing wrong with asking someone if they need a hand, but never take hold of a person’s wheelchair, body or mobility aide without asking first. 

People with disabilities have personal space bubbles too! 

These are just a few of the many tips and tricks that can help you end the awkwardness when it comes to socialising on-campus. If in doubt, the easiest approach to take is always to treat others the way you’d like to be treated. 

  • Are you a student with a disability who’s had some awkward encounters you’d like to share? 
  • Want to set the record straight about disability etiquette?
  • We’d love to hear from you! 

Sunday, April 7, 2019

व्हीलचेयर क्रिकेट इंडिया एसोसिएशन





द्वितीय राष्ट्रीय व्हीलचेयर क्रिकेट प्रतियोगिता का आयोजन व्हीलचेयर क्रिकेट इंडिया एसोसिएशन द्वारा २ मार्च से
 १७ मार्च २०१९ के बीच में आयोजित की गयी।  २ मार्च को रायपुर, छत्तीसगढ़ से प्रारम्भ होकर १७ मार्च २०१९ को नोएडा, उत्तर प्रदेश में इसका फाइनल मैच पंजाब और छत्तीसगढ़ के बीच में खेला गया।इसे जीतकर पंजाब इस वर्ष का राष्ट्रीय चैंपियन बना। १६ दिनों तक चली इस प्रतियोगिता के दौरान तकरीबन १८० दिव्यांग खिलाडियों नै अपने जौहर का प्रदर्शन किया। लीग मैचों का आयोजन रायपुर, मुंबई और लखनऊ में करा गया जिससे ४ सेमी फाइनलिस्ट - पंजाब, गुजरात, कर्नाटक और छत्तीसगढ़ निकल कर आये। सेमीफइनल के दो मैच १६ मार्च २०१९को नोएडा में खेले गए। 

यह सारे खिलाडी किन्ही कारणवश व्हीलचेयर से चलने के लिए बाध्य हैं। लेकिन इसके बावजूद इन्होने अपने क्रिकेट खेलने के जज्बे को मरने नहीं दिया। गौर करने वाली बात यह हैं की न केवल खेलने वाले खिलाडी व्हीलचेयर पर हैं अपितु इसका आयोजन करने वाले भी अधिकतर लोग व्हीलचेयर का इस्तेमाल करते हैं।  इस वर्ष की राष्ट्रीय चैंपियन पंजाब के कप्तान  वीर सिंह संधू न केवल खेलते हैं बल्कि औरों को खेलने के मौके देने के लिए संस्था का सञ्चालन भी खुद करते हैं।  इसी प्रकार कर्नाटक के शिव प्रसाद, छत्तीसगढ़ से सुनील राव, दिल्ली के दीपक मग्गो और सोनू गुप्ता, हरयाणा के रमेश कुमार, गुजरात के भीमा खूंटी  जैसे कई उदहारण हैं जिन्होंने खेलने के साथ - साथ संस्था का सञ्चालन भी बखूबी निभाया हैं।  महाराष्ट्र की निशा गुप्ता व्हीलचेयर बाध्य हैं और महिला हैं, उसके बावजूद वह महाराष्ट्र के एसोसिएशन की अध्यक्ष रह कर पुरुषों के लिए भी मार्गदर्शक का काम कर रही हैं।  खुद व्हीलचेयर क्रिकेट इंडिया एसोसिएशन के अध्यक्ष और भारतीय व्हीलचेयर  क्रिकेट टीम के CEO स्क्वाड्रन लीडर अभय प्रताप सिंह (रिटायर्ड ) भी व्हीलचेयर पर हैं और पहले भारत के लिए व्हीलचेयर क्रिकेट खेल चुके हैं।
  व्हीलचेयर क्रिकेट इंडिया का लक्ष्य दिव्यांगों को खाली क्रिकेट खिलाना नहीं हैं बल्कि उन्हें अक्षमता से सामर्थ्य की तरफ ले जाना हैं।  इसी उद्देश्य की पूर्ती हेतु व्हीलचेयर क्रिकेट इंडिया की कोशिश रहती हैं की ज्यादा से ज्यादा जिम्मेद्दारी दिव्यांगों को दी जाएं जो उसे करने के बाद अपने आपको और समर्थ मह्सूस करते हैं और बाकि दिव्यांगों के लिए प्रेरणा का स्त्रोत बनते हैं।  
अब बहुत ही शीघ्र व्हीलचेयर क्रिकेट इंडिया एसोसिएशन भारत में एक बड़ी अंतर्राष्ट्रीय प्रतियोगिता करने जा रही हैं जिसमे कम से कम ४ या उससे अधिक देशो की टीमों के भाग लेने की संभावना हैं।

Monday, February 11, 2019

Glimpses From 1st Wheelchair Cricket Tournament in India....

First Wheelchair Cricket Tournament was held in June 2016 at Allahabad. Some top shots from then are here.  All those who claim to have founded Wheelchair Cricket in India can counter if they have anything better and older.

Enjoy!!











Courtesy : Catchnews.com
http://www.catchnews.com/sports-news/cricket-in-a-wheelchair-the-sport-with-no-boundaries-1468408441.html

Sunday, February 10, 2019

Rules & Regulations : Wheelchair Cricket


Who can Participate?

Any player who has disability resulting in reduced or no motor control in one or both legs can play wheelchair cricket even if he does not use wheelchair regularly. 
Team 
A wheelchair cricket team will consist of 11 players of varying loco motor disabilities. The aim is to include players of various disability levels and not select a team based on strength of body. Points do not indicate level of strength. Point system is just to ensure participation from all types of locomoter disability.

Type of Disability
Category
Points
Lower limb Amputee
WC1
10
Polio one Leg
WC2
6
Polio both leg
WC3
4
Spinal L1 or below
WC4
3
Spinal above L1
WC5
2
A team can have maximum 56 player points. A Grace of 4 points has been allowed for season 2019-20.
Eg1. 
Category
Points
Nos
Total
WC1
10
2
20
WC2
6
2
12
WC3
4
2
8
WC4
3
2
6
WC5
2
3
6
11
52
This is a right team formation as team has total 52 points which is less than 56 points
Eg2.
Category
Points
Nos
Total
WC1
10
3
30
WC2
6
1
6
WC3
4
1
4
WC4
3
2
6
WC5
2
4
8
11
54
This is also right team formation.

Eg3.
Category
Points
Nos
Total
WC1
10
4
40
WC2
6
1
6
WC3
4
1
4
WC4
3
2
6
WC5
2
3
6
11
62

This is also not allowed as it is more than 56 + 4 
Before conduct of every match, the match officials should determine the total player points of a team and allow the team formation as per rules
Category WC5 : Amputee. Can walk using prosthetics
Category WC4 : Both leg amputee above knee, Polio or complete Lower body affected with Trunk balance. In case of Polio, can Walk with support of one Crutch/Stick.
Category WC3 : Both legs affected. Has sufficient Trunk Balance. Cannot Walk. Wheelchair Users.  Can move in & out of Wheelchair easily.
Category WC2 : Both legs Affected without Trunk balance/ Spinal Cord Injury. Wheelchair User. Cannot move in & out of wheelchair easily.
Category WC1 : Both legs Affected without Trunk balance/ Spinal Cord Injury. Wheelchair User. Cannot move in & out of wheelchair easily. Do not have bladder & Bowel control.
Notes:
1. 12th man can be from any category and can only be substitute fielder. Extras should be chosen judiciously because in case of replacement in between series also, max points cannot exceed 56 points.
2. In case of replacement, if points are exceeding 56 points, team will have to play with one player less.
3. However in case of fielding, there is no such restriction.
4. In case a team does not fulfill the above mentioned criterion of Player Points before a particular match, opposite team will be declared winner.

Colour of Ball & Colour of Player’s clothing
1. Pink & Transparent colour ball may be used in the match of weight not more than 150 g and circumference not more than 22.5 cms, similar to one's used in women’s cricket.
2. Only Coloured dress for player is allowed in the match.

Duration of Match & Others
1. Matches will consist of one innings per side with each innings being limited to 12 overs per side excluding extras or as decided by the organisers but not more than 20 overs.
2. Each innings of 20 overs shall have an allotted time of 110 minutes. As per overs, time can be calculated. Slow over-rates may induce ‘run penalties’ solely at the discretion of the umpires. Where the start of play is delayed or play is suspended, overs may be reduced by the umpires. In the case of twilight matches (beginning at 5:15pm), overs will be reduced if the match is not started on time. Extra time for matches will not be granted. In the Winter T20, all afternoon matches should aim to start at the published times to avoid issues with bad light.
3. If there is time wastage by the fielding side, the umpire should take the following steps: 
a) Call and signal dead ball if necessary
b) Award 5 penalty runs to the batting side
c) Inform the fielding captain, batsman and other umpire of what has happened. The umpire should also explain to the batting captain what has happened as soon as possible
d) Umpire needs to report the occurrence in the match report.

4. If there is time wastage by the batsman, the umpire should take the following steps:
a) a. Award 5 runs to the fielding side


b) At the first instance, the umpire should warn both batsmen. This warning applies for the rest of their batting innings. It is the first and final warning
c) Inform fielding captain, square leg umpire & batting captain (when possible) of what has occurred 
d) If there is any further deliberate time wasting by any batsmen in that innings, the umpire shall while the ball is dead
e) Report the occurrence in the match report.


5. The toss should ideally take place 15 minutes prior to the start of the match.
6. Each innings interval shall be no more than 15 minutes in duration for all matches.
7. There will be an innings interval of 30 minutes for all finals matches.
8. There will be 1 new ball to be used for each innings.
9. In the instance where the ball may be lost or is unfit for play a replacement ball should be used. All venues will have a limited supply of replacement balls. If there is no replacement ball available, the umpire may choose an appropriate ball.

General Rules
1. The length of pitch will be 20 yards (18 m approx)
2. The Ground boundary will be approximately 45-50 yards depending upon the ground condition and size. The circle will be of min 25 yards.
3. Wheelchair cricket player can take a run holding the bat or dropping the bat at his end as per his convenience.
4. The wheelchair of a player will be considered part of his body for award of leg bye runs.
5. Batsman is not allowed to place his leg on the ground to get the balance of the body to play shots while batting.
6. The Umpire decision is final and no argument by the players will be allowed.
7. Only severe condition batsman can be allowed a runner but the runner should also  be on a wheelchair and predesignated. Umpires will only be allowed to take decision to allow a runner.
8. The scorer and the official will be sitting together in scorer's box or commentary box and will  monitor the match along with the match referee and both side's team member for fair scoring.
9. The Bowler can bowl without moving their wheelchair but under arm and jerk bowling will not allowed.
10. The overall width of each wicket is 9 inches (22.9 cm). Each stump is 26 inches (66.04 cm) tall with maximum and minimum diameters of 112 inches (3.81 cm) and 138 inches (3.49 cm). They have a spike at one end for inserting into the ground, and the other end has a U-shaped 'through groove' to provide a resting place for the bails.

Wheelchairs

1. The wheelchair shall have at least two large wheels and two small wheel.
2. No part of the body of the chair may extend forwards beyond the hub of the front wheel and be wider than the inside of the hubs of the two rear wheels. The maximum height from the ground of the main body of the chair shall be 50 cm.
3. The maximum diameter of the large wheel including the inflated tyre shall not exceed 70 cm. The maximum diameter of the small wheel including the inflated tyre shall not exceed 25 cm.
4. Only one plain, round, hand rim is allowed for each large wheel. This rule may be waived for persons requiring a single arm drive chair, if so stated on their medical certificate and classification card.
5. No mechanical gears or levers shall be allowed, that may be used to propel the chair.
6. No part of the chair may protrude behind the vertical plane of the back edge of the rear tyres.
7. It will be the responsibility of the player to ensure the wheelchair conforms to all the above rules, and no match shall be delayed whilst a player makes adjustments to the chair.
8. Chairs will be measured before the event, and may not leave that area before the start of the event. Chairs that have been examined may be liable to re-examination before or after the event by the official in charge of the event.
9. It shall be the responsibility, in the first instance, of the official conducting the event, to rule on the safety of the chair.
10. Cricketers must ensure that no part of their lower limbs should fall on the ground during the match. 


Types of Wickets

1. Bowled - Cricket rules state that if the ball is bowled and hits the striking batsman's wickets the batsman is given out (as long as at least one bail is removed by the ball). It does not matter whether the ball has touched the batsman's bat, gloves, body or wheelchair.

2. Catch out - rules state that if a batsman hits the ball or touches the ball at all with his bat or hand/glove except wheelchair then the batsman can be catch out. This is done by the fielders, wicket keeper or bowler catching the ball on the full (before it bounces). If this is done then cricket rules state the batsman is out.

3. Stumped - A batsman can be given out according to cricket rules when the wicketkeeper puts down his wicket while he is out of crease by wheelchair and not attempting a run (if he is attempting a run it would be a run out).

4. Run Out - rules state that a batsman is out if no part of his bat or wheelchair front wheels are grounded behind the popping crease while the ball is in play and the wicket is fairly put down by the fielding side. If the Wheelchair cricket batsman moves the wheelchair to uplift the front wheel in the air but up the crease in this condition to batsman consider as run out.

5. Hit Wicket - rules specify that if a batsman hits his wicket down with his bat or body or wheelchair after the bowler has entered his delivery stride and the ball is in play then he is out.

6.Handled The Ball - rule allows the batsman to be given out if he deliberately handles the ball with the hand that is not touching the bat without the consent of the opposition.

7. Timed Out - An incoming batsman must be ready to face a ball or be at the non-strikers end with his partner within two minutes. Team Attendant is allowed to help players to reach the pitch in time.

8. Hit the Ball twice - rules state that if a batsman hits a ball twice other than for the purpose of protecting his wicket or with consent from the opposition he is out.

9. Obstructing The Field - A batsman is out if he willingly obstructs the opposition by word or action or by wheelchair to stop the ball before reaching to the fielder.

•         Umpires decision will be final and will not be contested further.

No Ball Rule

no-ball is followed by a 'free hit', a delivery from which the batsman can not be bowled or caught out, but can still be run out.

1. T
he umpire shall ascertain whether the bowler intends to bowl right handed or left handed, over or round the wicket, and shall so inform the striker.
It is unfair if the bowler fails to notify the umpire of a change in his/her mode of delivery.  In this case the umpire shall call and signal No ball.
2. For a delivery to be fair in respect of the arm the ball must not be thrown. 
A ball is fairly delivered in respect of the arm if, once the bowler’s arm has reached the level of the shoulder in the delivery swing, the elbow joint is not straightened partially or completely from that instant until the ball has left the hand.  This definition shall not debar a bowler from flexing or rotating the wrist in the delivery swing.
Although it is the primary responsibility of the striker’s end umpire to assess the fairness of a delivery in this respect, there is nothing in this Law to debar the bowler’s end umpire from calling and signalling No ball if he/she considers that the ball has been thrown.

3. Bowler breaking wicket in delivering ball
Either umpire shall call and signal No ball if, other than in an attempt to run out the non-striker, the bowler breaks the wicket at any time after the ball comes into play and before completion of the stride after the delivery stride. This shall include any clothing or other object that falls from his/her person and breaks the wicket.

4. Ball bouncing more than once, rolling along the ground or pitching off the pitch
The umpire shall call and signal No ball if a ball which he/she considers to have been delivered, without having previously touched bat or person of the striker,
- bounces more than once or rolls along the ground before it reaches the popping crease 
or
- pitches wholly or partially off the pitch as defined in Law 6.1 (Area of pitch) before it reaches the line of the striker’s wicket.  When a non-turf pitch is being used, this will apply to any ball that wholly or partially pitches off the artificial surface.

5. Ball coming to rest in front of striker’s wicket
If a ball delivered by the bowler comes to rest in front of the line of the striker’s wicket, without having previously touched the bat or person of the striker, the umpire shall call and signal No ball and immediately call and signal Dead ball.

6. Fielder intercepting a delivery
If a ball delivered by the bowler makes contact with any part of a fielder’s person before it either makes contact with the striker’s bat or person, or it passes the striker’s wicket, the umpire shall call and signal No ball and immediately call and signal Dead ball.

7. If any of the wheels of bowler's wheelchair is ahead of the line, the ball will be considered a no ball.

8. Ball passing OVER the head of the batsman: If hit by the batsman, it's considered a NO BALL. If not hit by the batsman, it's considered a WIDE. In either case, it's considered a bouncer.

9. Call of No ball for infringement of other Laws
In addition to the instances above, No ball is to be called and signalled as required by the following Laws.
a)Position of wicket-keeper
b) Limitation of on side fielders
c)Fielders not to encroach on pitch
d) Bowling of dangerous and unfair short pitched deliveries
e) Bowling of dangerous and unfair non-pitching deliveries
f) Bowling of deliberate front foot No ball.

Runs resulting from a No ball – how scored
The one run penalty shall be scored as a No ball extra and shall be debited against the bowler.  If other Penalty runs have been awarded to either side these shall be scored as stated in Law for Penalty runs.  Any runs completed by the batsmen or any boundary allowance shall be credited to the striker if the ball has been struck by the bat; otherwise they shall also be scored as Byes or Leg byes as appropriate. 

Out from a No ball

When No ball has been called, neither batsman shall be out under any of the Laws except Hit the ball twice,Obstructing the field or Run out.

Tie match & Super Over
1. In the group stage of the tournament, if there is a tie both teams are awarded 1 point and declared joint-winners.
2. From the ‘knock-out’ stage of the tournament, in the event that there is a tie, a ‘Super Over’ will be played. Each team will nominate three batsmen and one bowler to take part in the super over. The team that scores the most number of runs wins. If a team loses two wickets, their over is finished and the opposition bats.
3. If the scores in the Super Over are tied, the match is won by the team that has scored the most sixes in their innings.
4. In the unlikely case where the Super-over and boundaries of both teams are equal, the team that lost fewer wickets in the match wins. If both teams lost no wickets or the same number of wickets – the team that scored the most boundaries in the match wins.

Bowling
1. No bowler is permitted to bowl more than 4 overs in an innings of 20 overs. In a match of less than 20 overs a bowler is allowed to bowl maximum 1/5th of total overs rounded off to next over but min 5 bowlers should bowl. Like in case of 12 overs 1/5th is 2.4 over, so a bowler is allowed to bowl maximum 3 overs but all 5 bowlers should bowl min 2 overs. This is not inclusive of the super over in the case of a tie, which is applicable from the ‘knock-out’ stages of the tournament.
2. In the event that the match is played where the overs are reduced, a bowler shall not bowl more than one-fifth of the total overs allowed.
3. If a bowler cannot complete an over due to injury or being penalized, the remaining balls in the over will be bowled by another bowler.
4. If in doubt, umpires should liaise with scorers and any miscounting of balls/overs or number of overs that can be bowled by a particular bowler should be avoided. If a scorer notices that an umpire may have miscounted an over – they should immediately notify the umpire.
5. A bowler is limited to one short-pitched delivery per over. A short-pitched delivery is defined as a ball which passes or would have passed above the shoulder height of the striker. A high short-ball passing above the head of batsman may be called a wide. 

Wide Ball
1. If the ball is out of batsman reach will considered as wide ball.
2. On the leg side if the ball hits behind the axle of the chair, the ball may be considered wide. However as per the stance of players umpire will have to judge the wide ball on the leg side. A 6 inch mark will also be marked to facilitate umpires for judging wide ball.

Fielding Restriction
1.  At any time during the match the number of fielders on the leg side cannot exceed five.
2.  During the first six overs (power play), the number of fielders outside the 25-yard circle cannot exceed two.
3.  After the first six overs, the number of fielders outside the 25-yard circle is limited to five.
4. The fielding team also has a restriction; it has to start its 20th over within 110 minute of the game. Failing which, an extra 6 runs would be added to the rival team's score multiplied by the number of overs bowled after 110 minutes time span.
5. If the time is being wasted by the batting team, umpire has the right to add more time to it.

Penalties

1 Fair and unfair play – responsibility of captains
The captains are responsible for ensuring that play is conducted within The Spirit of Cricket, as described in The Preamble – The Spirit of Cricket, as well as within the Laws.

2 Fair and unfair play – responsibility of umpires
The umpires shall be the sole judges of fair and unfair play.  If either umpire considers an action, not covered by the Laws, to be unfair he/she shall intervene without appeal and, if the ball is in play, call and signal Dead ball and implement the procedure as set out in 19.  Otherwise umpires shall not interfere with the progress of play without appeal except as required to do so by the Laws.

3 The match ball – changing its condition
3.1 The umpires shall make frequent and irregular inspections of the ball.  In addition, they shall immediately inspect the ball if they suspect anyone of attempting to change the condition of the ball, except as permitted in 3.2.
3.2 It is an offence for any player to take any action which changes the condition of the ball.
Except in carrying out his/her normal duties, a batsman is not allowed to wilfully damage the ball.  See also Law 5.5 (Damage to the ball).
A fielder may, however
3.2.1 Polish the ball on his/her clothing provided that no artificial substance is used and that such polishing wastes no time.
3.2.2 Remove mud from the ball under the supervision of an umpire.
3.2.3 Dry a wet ball on a piece of cloth that has been approved by the umpires.
3.3 The umpires shall consider the condition of the ball to have been unfairly changed if any action by any player does not comply with the conditions in 3.2.
3.4 If the umpires consider that the condition of the ball has been unfairly changed by a member or members of either side, they shall ask the captain of the opposing side if he/she would like the ball to be replaced.  If necessary, in the case of the batting side, the batsmen at the wicket may deputise for their captain.
3.4.1 If a replacement ball is requested, the umpires shall select and bring into use immediately, a ball which shall have wear comparable to that of the previous ball immediately prior to the contravention.
3.4.2 Regardless of whether a replacement ball has been chosen to be used, the bowler’s end umpire shall
- award 5 Penalty runs to the opposing side.
- if appropriate, inform the batsmen at the wicket and the captain of the fielding side that the ball has been changed and the reason for their action.
- inform the captain of the batting side as soon as practicable of what has occurred.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.
3.5 If the umpires agree that in the match there has been any further instance by that team of unfairly changing the condition of the ball, they shall
3.5.1 repeat the procedure in 3.4.1 and 3.4.2.
If the further offence is committed by the fielding side, additionally the bowler’s end umpire shall
3.5.2 - direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend immediately from bowling the bowler who delivered the preceding ball; he/she shall not be allowed to bowl again in the match.
- inform the batsmen at the wicket and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the reason for the action.
- if necessary, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.

4 Deliberate attempts to distract striker
4.1 It is unfair for any fielder deliberately to attempt to distract the striker while he/she is preparing to receive or receiving a delivery.
4.2 If either umpire considers that any action by a fielder is such an attempt, he/she shall immediately call and signal Dead ball and inform the other umpire of the reason for the call.  The bowler’s end umpire shall
- award 5 Penalty runs to the batting side.
- inform the captain of the fielding side, the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the reason for the action.
Neither batsman shall be dismissed from that delivery nor shall the ball count as one of the over.
Together with the other umpire report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.  

5 Deliberate distraction, deception or obstruction of batsman
5.1 In addition to 4, it is unfair for any fielder wilfully to attempt, by word or action, to distract, deceive or obstruct either batsman after the striker has received the ball.
5.2 It is for either one of the umpires to decide whether any distraction, deception or obstruction is wilful or not.
5.3 If either umpire considers that a fielder has caused or attempted to cause such a distraction, deception or obstruction, he/she shall immediately call and signal Dead ball and inform the other umpire of the reason for the call.  
5.4 Neither batsman shall be dismissed from that delivery.
5.5 If an obstruction involves physical contact, the umpires together shall decide whether or not an offence under Law 42 (Players’ conduct) has been committed.
5.5.1 If an offence under Law 42 (Players’ conduct) has been committed, they shall apply the relevant procedures in Law 42 and shall also apply each of 5.7 to 5.9.  
5.5.2 If they consider that there has been no offence under Law 42 (Players’ conduct), they shall apply each of 5.6 to 5.10.       
5.6 The bowler’s end umpire shall
- award 5 Penalty runs to the batting side.
- inform the captain of the fielding side of the reason for this action and as soon as practicable inform the captain of the batting side.
5.7 The ball shall not count as one of the over.
5.8 Any runs completed by the batsmen before the offence shall be scored, together with any runs for penalties awarded to either side.  Additionally, the run in progress shall be scored whether or not the batsmen had already crossed at the instant of the offence.
5.9 The batsmen at the wicket shall decide which of them is to face the next delivery.
5.10 The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

6 Bowling of dangerous and unfair short pitched deliveries
6.1 The bowling of short pitched deliveries is dangerous if the bowler’s end umpire considers that, taking into consideration the skill of the striker, by their speed, length, height and direction they are likely to inflict physical injury on him/her.  The fact that the striker is wearing protective equipment shall be disregarded. 
6.2 The bowler’s end umpire may consider that the bowling of short pitched deliveries, although not dangerous under 6.1, is unfair if they repeatedly pass above head height of the striker standing upright at the crease.  See also Law 21.10 (Ball bouncing over head height of striker).
6.3 As soon as the umpire decides that the bowling of short pitched deliveries has become dangerous under 6.1, or unfair under 6.2, he/she shall call and signal No ball. When the ball is dead, the umpire shall caution the bowler, indicating that this is a first and final warning, and inform the other umpire, the captain of the fielding side and the batsmen of what has occurred.
This caution shall apply to that bowler throughout the innings.
6.4 Should there be any further such delivery by the same bowler in that innings, the umpire shall
- call and signal No ball
- when the ball is dead, direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler immediately from bowling
- inform the other umpire for the reason for this action.
The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.
If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.
- The umpire shall report the occurrence to the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, to the captain of the batting side.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.
6.5 The warning sequence in 6.3 and 6.4 is independent of the warning and action sequence in 7.

7  Bowling of dangerous and unfair non-pitching deliveries
7.1 Any delivery, which passes or would have passed, without pitching, above waist height of the striker standing upright at the popping crease, is to be deemed dangerous and unfair, whether or not it is likely to inflict physical injury on the striker.  If the bowler bowls such a delivery the umpire shall immediately call and signal No ball. When the ball is dead, the umpire shall caution the bowler, indicating that this is a first and final warning. The umpire shall also inform the other umpire, the captain of the fielding side and the batsmen of what has occurred. This caution shall apply to that bowler throughout the innings.
7.2 Should there be any further such delivery by the same bowler in that innings, the umpire shall
- call and signal No ball
- when the ball is dead, direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler immediately from bowling
- inform the other umpire for the reason for this action.
The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.
If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.
Additionally the umpire shall
- report the occurrence to the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, to the captain of the batting side.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.
7.3 The warning sequence in 7.1 and 7.2 is independent of the warning and action sequence in 6.
7.4 If the umpire considers that a bowler deliberately bowled a non-pitching delivery, deemed to be dangerous and unfair as defined in 7.1, then the caution and warning in 7.1 shall be dispensed with. The umpire shall
- immediately call and signal No ball.
- when the ball is dead, direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler immediately from bowling and inform the other umpire for the reason for this action.
The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.
If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.
- report the occurrence to the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, to the captain of the batting side.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

8     Bowling of deliberate front-foot No ball
If the umpire considers that the bowler has delivered a deliberate front-foot No ball, he/she shall
- immediately call and signal No ball.
- when the ball is dead, direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler immediately from bowling
-   inform the other umpire for the reason for this action.
The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.
If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.
- report the occurrence to the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, to the captain of the batting side.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

9    Time wasting by the fielding side
9.1 It is unfair for any fielder to waste time. 
9.2 If either umpire considers that the progress of an over is unnecessarily slow, or time is being wasted in any other way, by the captain of the fielding side or by any other fielder, at the first instance the umpire concerned shall
- if the ball is in play, call and signal Dead ball.
- inform the other umpire of what has occurred.
The bowler’s end umpire shall then
- warn the captain of the fielding side, indicating that this is a first and final warning.
- inform the batsmen of what has occurred.
9.3 If either umpire considers that there is any further waste of time in that innings by any fielder, the umpire concerned shall
- if the ball is in play, call and signal Dead ball.
- inform the other umpire of what has occurred.
The bowler’s end umpire shall then
either, if the waste of time is not during an over, award 5 Penalty runs to the batting side and inform the captain of the fielding side of the reason for this action
or,      if the waste of time is during the course of an over, direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler immediately from bowling. 
The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.
If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.
Additionally the umpire shall inform the batsmen and, as soon as is practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

10 Batsman wasting time
10.1 It is unfair for a batsman to waste time.  In normal circumstances, the striker should always be ready to take strike when the bowler is ready to start his/her run-up.
10.2 Should either batsman waste time by failing to meet this requirement, or in any other way, the following procedure shall be adopted.  At the first instance, either before the bowler starts his/her run-up or when the ball becomes dead, as appropriate, the umpire shall
- warn both batsmen and indicate that this is a first and final warning.  This warning shall apply throughout the innings.  The umpire shall so inform each incoming batsman.
- inform the other umpire of what has occurred.
- inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.
10.3 If there is any further time wasting by any batsman in that innings, the umpire shall, at the appropriate time while the ball is dead
- award 5 Penalty runs to the fielding side.
- inform the other umpire of the reason for this action.
- inform the other batsman, the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

11 The protected area
The protected area is defined as that area of the pitch contained within a rectangle bounded at each end by imaginary lines parallel to the popping creases and 5 ft/1.52 m in front of each, and on the sides by imaginary lines, one each side of the imaginary line joining the centres of the two middle stumps, each parallel to it and 1 ft/30.48 cm from it.

12 Fielder damaging the pitch
12.1 It is unfair to cause deliberate or avoidable damage to the pitch. A fielder will be deemed to be causing avoidable damage if either umpire considers that his/her presence on the pitch is without reasonable cause.
12.2 If a fielder causes avoidable damage to the pitch, other than as in 13.1, at the first instance the umpire seeing the contravention shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire. The bowler’s end umpire shall then
- caution the captain of the fielding side and indicate that this is a first and final warning. This warning shall apply throughout the innings.
- inform the batsmen of what has occurred.
12.3 If, in that innings, there is any further instance of avoidable damage to the pitch, by any fielder, the umpire seeing the contravention shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire. The bowler’s end umpire shall then
- signal No ball or Wide to the scorers, if applicable.
- award 5 Penalty runs to the batting side.
- award any other 5 run Penalty that is applicable.
- inform the fielding captain of the reason for this action.
- inform the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

13 Bowler running on protected area
13.1 It is unfair for a bowler to enter the protected area in his/her follow-through without reasonable cause, whether or not the ball is delivered.
13.2 If a bowler contravenes this Law, at the first instance and when the ball is dead, the umpire shall
- caution the bowler and inform the other umpire of what has occurred.  This caution shall apply to that bowler throughout the innings.
- inform the captain of the fielding side and the batsmen of what has occurred.
13.3 If, in that innings, the same bowler again contravenes this Law, the umpire shall repeat the above procedure indicating that this is a final warning. This warning shall also apply throughout the innings.
13.4 If, in that innings, the same bowler contravenes this Law a third time, when the ball is dead, the umpire shall,
- direct the captain of the fielding side to suspend the bowler immediately from bowling. If applicable, the over shall be completed by another bowler, who shall neither have bowled any part of the previous over, nor be allowed to bowl any part of the next over.  The bowler thus suspended shall not be allowed to bowl again in that innings.
- inform the other umpire of the reason for this action.
- inform the batsmen and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

14 Batsman damaging the pitch
14.1 It is unfair to cause deliberate or avoidable damage to the pitch.  If the striker enters the protected area in playing or playing at the ball, he/she must move from it immediately thereafter.  A batsman will be deemed to be causing avoidable damage if either umpire considers that his/her presence on the pitch is without reasonable cause.
14.2 If either batsman causes deliberate or avoidable damage to the pitch, other than as in 15, at the first instance the umpire seeing the contravention shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire of the occurrence. The bowler’s end umpire shall then
- warn both batsmen that the practice is unfair and indicate that this is a first and final warning.   This warning shall apply throughout the innings. The umpire shall so inform each incoming batsman.
- inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.
14.3 If there is any further instance of avoidable damage to the pitch by any batsman in that innings, the umpire seeing the contravention shall, when the ball is dead, inform the other umpire of the occurrence.
The bowler’s end umpire shall
- disallow all runs to the batting side
- return any not out batsman to his/her original end
- signal No ball or Wide to the scorers if applicable.
- award 5 Penalty runs to the fielding side.
- award any other 5-run Penalty that is applicable except for Penalty runs under Law 28.3 (Protective helmets belonging to the fielding side).
- Inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the reason for this action.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

15 Striker in protected area
15.1 The striker shall not adopt a stance in the protected area or so close to it that frequent encroachment is inevitable. 
The striker may mark a guard on the pitch provided that no mark is unreasonably close to the protected area. 
15.2 If there is breach of any of the conditions in 15.1 by the striker, the umpire seeing the contravention shall, if the bowler has not entered his/her delivery stride, immediately call and signal Dead ball, otherwise, he/she shall wait until the ball is dead and then inform the other umpire of the occurrence.
The bowler’s end umpire shall then
- warn the striker that the practice is unfair and indicate that this is a first and final warning. This warning shall apply throughout the innings. The umpire shall so inform the non-striker and each incoming batsman.
- inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of what has occurred.
15.3 If there is any further breach of any of the conditions in 15.1 by any batsman in that innings, the umpire seeing the contravention shall, if the bowler has not entered his/her delivery stride, immediately call and signal Dead ball, otherwise, he/she shall wait until the ball is dead and then inform the other umpire of the occurrence.
 The bowler’s end umpire shall then
- disallow all runs to the batting side
- return any not out batsman to his/her original end
- signal No ball or Wide to the scorers if applicable.
- award 5 Penalty runs to the fielding side.
- Award any other 5-run Penalty that is applicable except for Penalty runs under Law 28.3 (Protective helmets belonging to the fielding side).
- inform the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side of the reason for this action.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team

16 Non-striker leaving his/her ground early
If the non-striker is out of his/her ground from the moment the ball comes into play to the instant when the bowler would normally have been expected to release the ball, the bowler is permitted to attempt to run him/her out. Whether the attempt is successful or not, the ball shall not count as one in the over.
If the bowler fails in an attempt to run out the non-striker, the umpire shall call and signal Dead ball as soon as possible.

17 Batsmen stealing a run
It is unfair for the batsmen to attempt to steal a run during the bowler’s run-up.  Unless the bowler attempts to run out either batsman – see 16 and Law 21.4 (Bowler throwing towards striker’s end before delivery) – the umpire shall
- call and signal Dead ball as soon as the batsmen cross in such an attempt.
- inform the other umpire of the reason for this action.
The bowler’s end umpire shall then
- return the batsmen to their original ends.
- award 5 Penalty runs to the fielding side.
- award any other 5 run Penalty that is applicable, except for Penalty runs under Law 28.3 (Protective helmets belonging to the fielding side).
- inform the batsmen, the captain of the fielding side and, as soon as practicable, the captain of the batting side, of the reason for this action.
The umpires together shall report the occurrence as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

18 Penalty runs
18.1     When Penalty runs are awarded to either side, when the ball is dead the umpire shall signal the Penalty runs to the scorers.  See Law 2.13 (Signals).
18.2     Penalty runs shall be awarded in each case where the Laws require the award, even if a result has already been achieved.  See Law 16.6 (Winning hit or extras).
Note, however, that the restrictions on awarding Penalty runs, in Laws 23.3 (Leg byes not to be awarded), 25.7 (Restriction on the striker’s runner), 28.3 (Protective helmets belonging to the fielding side) and 34.4 (Runs permitted from ball lawfully struck more than once) will apply.
18.3 When 5 Penalty runs are awarded to the batting side,
- they shall be scored as Penalty extras and shall be in addition to any other penalties.
- they are awarded when the ball is dead and shall not be regarded as runs scored from either the immediately preceding delivery or the immediately following delivery, and shall be in addition to any runs from those deliveries.
- the batsmen shall not change ends solely by reason of the 5 run penalty.
18.4 When 5 Penalty runs are awarded to the fielding side, they shall be added as Penalty extras to that side’s total of runs in its most recently completed innings.  If the fielding side has not completed an innings, the 5 Penalty runs shall be added to the score in its next innings.

19 Unfair actions
19.1 If an umpire considers that any action by a player, not covered in the Laws, is unfair, he/she shall call and signal Dead ball, if appropriate, as soon as it becomes clear that the call will not disadvantage the non-offending side, and report the matter to the other umpire.  
The bowler’s end umpire shall
19.1.1 If this is a first offence by that side
- summon the offending player’s captain and issue a first and final warning which shall apply to all members of the team for the remainder of the match. 
- warn the offending player’s captain that any further such offence by any member of his/her team shall result in the award of 5 Penalty runs to the opposing team.
19.1.2 If this is a second or subsequent offence by that side
- award 5 Penalty runs to the opposing side
19.1.3 The umpires together shall report the incident as soon as possible after the match to the Executive of the offending side and to any Governing Body responsible for the match, who shall take such action as is considered appropriate against the captain, any other individuals concerned and, if appropriate, the team.

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